Historian Roger Ekirch believes this 1595 engraving by Jan Saenredam is evidence of activity at night.
If you sleep like your ancestors did, is it better for your health? Primary sources describe a first sleep (or “dead sleep”) which began about two hours after dusk, followed by waking period of one or two hours, and then a second sleep (“morning sleep”).
During this waking period people were quite active. They often got up, went to the toilet or smoked tobacco and some even visited neighbours. Most people stayed in bed, read, wrote and often prayed. Countless prayer manuals from the late 15th Century offered special prayers for the hours in between sleeps.
And these hours weren’t entirely solitary – people often chatted to bed-fellows or had sex.
According to the segmented sleep article on Wikipedia, “People also used this time to pray and reflect and to interpret dreams, which were more vivid at that hour than upon waking in the morning. This was also a favorite time for scholars and poets to write uninterrupted, whereas still others visited neighbors, had sex, or engaged in petty crime.”
The BBC Magazine notes that references were found
in diaries, court records, medical books and literature, from Homer’s Odyssey to an anthropological account of modern tribes in Nigeria. A doctor’s manual from 16th Century France even advised couples that the best time to conceive was not at the end of a long day’s labour but “after the first sleep,” when “they have more enjoyment” and “do it better.”
References to the first and second sleep started to disappear during the late 17th century, which Ekirch lays to “improvements in street lighting, domestic lighting and a surge in coffee houses – which were sometimes open all night. As the night became a place for legitimate activity and as that activity increased, the length of time people could dedicate to rest dwindled.”
Sleep like your ancestors? You could get a lot of family history research done in those quiet hours!